Rocks & Fossils 0910 (rocksfossils0910)



1. Which is not part of the definition of a mineral?

A. naturally occurring
B. definite composition
C. solid
D. organic

2. When limestone is exposed to enough heat and pressure, it goes through physical changes. These changes can turn limestone into a different kind of rock called marble. Which of these BEST describes marble?

A. It is an igneous rock.
B. It is a synthetic rock.
C. It is a sedimentary rock.
D. It is a metamorphic rock.

3. Which kind of rock is formed when volcanic lava cools?

A. sedimentary
B. metamorphic
C. igneous
D. magma

4. A student wants to study how igneous rock changes to sedimentary rock. Is this a good project if the student needs to complete the study within a month?

A. Yes because the changes will happen quickly and be significant.
B. Yes because the changes will be easily observed since they are very obvious.
C. No because the difference between igneous rock and sedimentary rock is not noticeable.
D. No because the changes will take much longer than a month to occur.

5. Rocks found on Earth are generally classified as sedimentary, metamorphic, or igneous. On which basis are these classifications made?

A. where the rocks are found
B. how the rocks were formed
C. the color and shape of the rocks
D. the chemical composition of the rocks

6. The formation of metamorphic rocks depends on all of the following except

A. the composition of the parent rocks.
B. Earth's magnetic field.
C. temperature.
D. pressure.

7. When rocks undergo weathering, they become

A. magma.
B. igneous rocks.
C. sediment.
D. volcanic cones.

8. What type of rock results from the cooling of lava from a volcano?

A. sedimentary
B. bituminous
C. igneous
D. metamorphic

9. Igneous rocks are classified by where they are formed. Which type of igneous rock forms underground?

A. extrusive
B. intrusive
C. volcanic
D. ash

10. Igneous rocks form from

A. sediment.
B. mud.
C. gravel.
D. magma.

11. Some of Earth's rocks are formed by the cooling of a molten material called

A. magma.
B. ore.
C. coal.
D. lime.

12. What type of rock is sandstone?

A. igneous
B. metamorphic
C. ferromagnetic
D. sedimentary


Which type of rock is most likely to be formed by the cooling of magma underground?

A. sandstone
B. limestone
C. granite
D. shale

14. Extrusive rocks have small grains because they —

A. cool quickly.

B. harden underground.

C. contain rare minerals.

D. have a rough mixture.

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15. What can we learn by studying fossils?

A. how Earth's environments have changed
B. how the solar system was formed
C. how strong earthquakes are caused
D. how hurricanes formed long ago

16. There are several different layers in the soil along a bank of a creek. Two fossils are found in the bank, one near the bottom of the bank, close to the creek, and one higher up near the top. It can probably be said that the

A. fossil found near the bottom is older than the fossil found near the top.
B. fossils are about the same age since they were found along the same creek.
C. fossils could not have come from the same animal since they were separated.
D. two different fossils are evidence of how animals adapt to their environment over time.

17. A fossil of an ocean fish was found in a rock outcrop on a mountain. This probably means that

A. fish once lived on the mountain.
B. the relative humidity was once very high.
C. the mountain was raised up after the fish died.
D. fish used to be amphibians like toads and frogs.

18. To find the absolute age of the fossil shells, the geologist would use

A. satellite imagery.
B. radioactive isotopes.
C. seismic mapping.
D. magnetic resonance imaging.

19. How do scientists know that dinosaurs and horses did not exist in the same geological eras?

A. Dinosaurs would have destroyed any mammals, including horses.
B. Horses would have become extinct along with dinosaurs.
C. There are no rock layers that have fossils of both dinosaur and horse remains.
D. Horse fossils are found only in rock layers below layers with dinosaur fossils.


The diagram shows layers of sedimentary rocks and examples of their fossils. Which layer contains the oldest fossils?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

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© Virginia Department of Education

21. Which of the following most likely results in the formation of a fossil?

A. A Mesozoic clam lies exposed on the surface of the sea floor.

B. A Mesozoic clam is washed up onto the beach.

C. A Mesozoic clam is eaten by a large predatory fish.

D. A Mesozoic clam is buried by a mudslide.

Permission has been granted for reproduction by the Virginia Department of Education
© Virginia Department of Education

22. Ricardo has an igneous rock in his rock collection. Where did this rock most likely form?

A. in a volcano

B. on a forest floor

C. on a coral reef

D. at the bottom of a river

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23. Extrusive rocks are formed by

A. magma cooling on Earth's surface.
B. pressures inside Earth.
C. the attraction of magnetic particles.
D. tidal deposits of sediment.

24. Rocks are affected by heat and pressure. One source of this pressure is

A. energy from the Sun.
B. burning of fossil fuels.
C. the mass of overlying rocks.
D. the decomposition of organic materials.