On a clean sheet of paper, number 1-50 and write your answers on the paper.


1. Which must be true about Earth's crust?



A.  it is hotter than Earth's deepest layers

B.  it has most of the metals in Earth's composition

C.  its rocks make up most of Earth's mass

D.  it is less dense than Earth's mantle or core




2. Since Earth's crust lies on the mantle,


A.  the crust should be more dense than the mantle.

B.   the crust should be less dense than the mantle.

C.  the density of the crust should be the same as the mantle.

D.  the density of the crust should be the same as that of the outer core.



3.  Compared to rocks in Earth's crust, rocks in the mantle are more


A.  dense.

B.  mineral-rich.

C.  granular.

D.  porous.



4.  The continental crust floats on top of the mantle because the crust is


A.  less dense than the mantle.

B.  made of a liquid material.

C.  made up of oxygen which is a light element.

D.  separated from the mantle by a layer of water.


5. Which explains why the continental crust floats on top of the mantle?


A.  The crust is made of a liquid material.

B.   The crust is less dense than the mantle.

C.  The crust is made up of oxygen, which is a light element.

D.  The crust is separated from the mantle by a layer of water.


6. Which is not part of the definition of a mineral?

A.    naturally occurring

B.  definite composition

C.  organic

D.  solid


7.  The deepest part of Earth's interior consist of two zones: the


A.  crust and mantle

B.  mantle and outer core

C.  outer core and crust

D.  inner core and outer core


8.  Which layers above are known as the mantle?


A.    A and E

B.    B and C

C.    D and E

D.    C and D


9.  Features of the crust include


A.    rocks

B.    mountains

C.    soil

D.    all of the above


10. Which is a correct statement about the interior of Earth?

A.    It gets hotter closer to the inner core.

B.    It is largely composed of ice and water.

C.  It has thinner layers the closer it gets to the core.

D.  It causes water to evaporate into the atmosphere.


11. Because of the very high temperatures and pressures it encounters, which layer of Earth consists mainly of solid iron and nickel?


A.    crust

B.    mantle

C.    inner core

D.    outer core




12. Use the diagram to answer the question that follows.









Which is the correct order of Earths layers, from outside to inside?

A.  crust, core, mantle

B.    crust, mantle, core

C.    mantle, crust, core

D.    core, crust, mantle

13. A student uses clay to construct a model of Earth. Which layer of the model should be the thinnest layer?

A.    the layer representing the mantle

B.    the layer representing the outer core

C.    the layer representing the inner core

D.    the layer representing the crust

14. The majority of the Earth's volume is made up of which of the following?

A.    crust

B.    mantle

C.    core

D.    none of the above



15. The inner core of the Earth is solid because of the

A.  rate of rotation.

B.  extreme temperature.

C.  amount of pressure.

D.  magnetic field.


16. Which of the following statement is true about the Earth's core and the mantle?


A.  The core of the Earth is a soft , flowing material and the mantle is a dense solid.

B.   The core of the Earth is solidified and therefore is cooler than the mantle.

C.  The Earth's core is composed of basalt and the mantle is composed of granite

D.  The Earth's core is a dense ball of solid metal and the mantle is a layer of hot rock that can bend.

17. Which is the thinnest layer of Earths structure?

A.    the crust

B.   the mantle

C.  the inner core

D.  the outer core



18. Use the following diagram.



Which statement best describes the layer shown by the arrow?


A. It is the lithosphere and is less dense than the other layers


B. It is the mantle and makes up most of the mass of the Earth


C. It is the outer core and is a solid because of extreme pressure


D. It is the inner core and is hotter and more dense than the other layers.



19. Which of these correctly lists Earths layers from the center to the surface?

A.    outer core, inner core, asthenosphere, lithosphere

B.    asthenosphere, lithosphere, outer core, inner core

C.    inner core, asthenosphere, lithosphere, outer core

D.    inner core, outer core, asthenosphere, lithosphere




20. This map shows the borders of Earths major tectonic plates.


















Which tectonic plate is directly south of the African Plate?

A. North American Plate

B.   Antarctic Plate

C.  Pacific Plate

D.  Nazca Plate

21. Which is most likely to occur in areas of high volcanic activity?

A.    canyons

B.  deposition

C.  earthquakes

D.  precipitation



22. Where do volcanoes form?


A.  where plates are moving together

B.   where plates are moving apart

C.  where hot spots are located

D.  all of the above



23. Which of these tectonic plate boundaries is most likely to form a volcano?


A.  a continental plate colliding with a continental plate

B.  an oceanic plate sliding past a continental plate

C.  a continental plate sliding past a continental plate

D.  an oceanic plate colliding into a continental plate




24. The dotted lines on this world map show the boundaries of the major tectonic plates.



















What is the name of the shaded tectonic plate?

A.  African Plate

B.  Eurasian Plate

C.  Indo-Australian Plate

D.  South American Plate

25. The major process that wears down whole mountain ranges is       _.

A.    earthquakes

B.   weathering

C.  plate movement

D.  silt deposition



26. At which location does the movement of tectonic plates form isolated volcanic islands, such as Hawaii?

A.    transform boundary

B.    divergent boundary

C.    subduction zone

D.  hot spot



27. When tectonic plates move, they place a lot of stress on rocks, sometimes causing them to break.  Why are earthquakes caused by rocks breaking?



A.  The tectonic plates keep moving.

B.   The ground sinks in between tectonic plates.

C.  The tectonic plates create strong surface waves.

D.  The breaking rocks produce vibrations.


28. A boundary where two tectonic plates come together, or collide, is called a


A.  divergent boundary.

B.  convergent boundary.

C.  transform boundary.

D.  transfer boundary.



29. Most earthquakes and volcanoes occur in areas of the Pacific Ocean called "The Ring of Fire." Scientists agree that the reason for this is because


A.  plate boundaries are located in those areas.

B.   that part of Earth is hotter than all other parts of Earth.

C.  a large number of people live in these areas.

D.  the ocean weighs so much that it forces magma up.



30. The movement of crustal plates results from circulating currents in material beneath the crust of Earth. Which best describes the material which moves the crustal plates?


A.  hot water

B.  convection currents in the molten rock

C.  liquid metal

D.  solid iron



31. Which of the following was a giant supercontinent that all of the modern continents came from?

A.  Laurasia

B.   Gondwanaland

C.  Eurasia

D.  Pangea





32. The map shows a boundary between two tectonic plates.




















Between which two tectonic plates is this boundary located?

A. Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate

B.  North American Plate and Pacific Plate

C.  Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate

D.  North American Plate and Eurasian Plate


33. Which event most likely caused the formation of folded mountain ranges?

A.    Tectonic plates on the earth pushed together.

B.  Tectonic plates on the earth pulled apart.

C.  Tectonic plates on the earth slid past each other.

D.  Tectonic plates on the earth broke into small pieces.



34. The surface of Earth is composed of large tectonic plates that are constantly shifting as they float on top of molten rock. Which process must occur in the mantle to make the plates move?



A.  normal faulting

B.  seafloor spreading

C.  igneous intrusions

D.  convection currents


35. The theory of plate tectonics attempts to explain the



A.  composition of the Earth's inner regions.

B.  movement of Earth's upper layers.

C.  gravitational forces of Earth.

D.  layering of sedimentary rock.


36. Crustal plates that pull apart from one another most likely form


A.  volcanic island arcs.

B.  strike-slip faults.

C.  oceanic trenches.

D.  rift zones.



37. In order to complete a convection current within the earth's surface, the rising material must eventually   .



A.  stop inside the Earth

B.  cool the Earth's core

C.  sink back into the earth

D.  warm the earth's surface



38. Earthquakes are most likely to occur where


A.  the pressure cracks thin areas of Earth's crust.

B.  heat causes the mantle to expand.

C.  bubbles of magma rise to the surface.

D.  one crustal plate moves under another.


39. Which statement describes a landform being shaped by volcanic activity?


A.  A sandy beach disappears as waves carry material out into the ocean.

B.   A section of layered rock bends and breaks over years due to pressure forces.

C.  A river becomes shallower as soil and small rocks are carried downstream and then dropped.

D.  An island grows larger when liquid rock flows out from Earths mantle and cools on the surface.



40. What is the process called when a plate of ocean crust collides with a plate of continental crust, the denser oceanic plates slides under the lighter continental plate and plunges into the mantle?


A.  continental drift

B.   seafloor spreading

C.  subduction

D.  A hot spot.



41. The primary cause of continental drift, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions is


A.  convection currents beneath Earth's crust

B.   the rotation of Earth on its axis

C.  the gradual sinking of Earth's crust

D.  heat from the Sun warming Earth



42. The Hawaiian Islands are in the middle of a large tectonic plate with many volcanoes. The volcanoes are the direct result of the tectonic plate


A.  being forced under another tectonic plate at a subduction zones.

B.  colliding with one another tectonic plate and being forced upward. C.      moving over a hot spot where magma breaks through the crust.

D.  applying great pressure on the crust causing constant earthquakes.



43. Which accurately describes the relationship between earthquakes and volcanoes?


A.  Earthquakes usually cause volcanoes to erupt.

B.  Volcanic eruptions usually cause severe earthquakes.

C.  Earthquakes and volcanoes often are located where tectonic plates meet.

D.  Earthquakes and volcanoes are not related in any way.



44. When tectonic plates move, they place a lot of stress on rocks, sometimes causing them to break.  Why are earthquakes caused by rocks breaking?


 A.  The tectonic plates keep moving.

B.   The ground sinks in between tectonic plates.

C.  The tectonic plates create strong surface waves.

D.  The breaking rocks produce vibrations.



45.                             helped to solve the problem of how continents move.



A.  continental drift

B.   sea floor spreading

C.  subduction

D.  rifting




46. A(n)        is the triangular-shaped deposit of sediments that forms where a river empties into a larger body of water.



A.  levee

B.   slumps

C.  alluvial fan

D.  delta




47. Trilobites are extinct animals that lived in the oceans. Fossils of these animals can be found in dry areas such as Cincinnati. What does this indicate?



A.  Trilobites now live underground.

B.   Trilobites are the ancestors of jellyfish.

C.  Cincinnati was once covered by the ocean where trilobites lived.

D.  The environment changed, creating small saltwater lakes in Cincinnati.

48. A fossil of an ocean fish was found on a rock outcrop on a mountain.  This probably means that                                                                                      .

A.    a fish once lived on the mountain.

B.   the relative humidity on the mountain was once very high

C.  the mountain was once raised up after the fish died

D.  the fish used to be amphibious like toads and frogs


49. Which statement best describes why fossils of the same land-dwelling species have been discovered in both South

America and Africa?


A.  These organisms migrated to these two continents.

B.   These organisms were separated by the formation of new mountain ranges.

C.  These organisms became extinct due to climate changes on these continents.

D.  These organisms once lived on one large landmass that later split into two continents.

50. The fossil of a tiny horse is found in a layer of rock below the fossil of a larger horse. What can you conclude? Remember superposition!

A.    The tiny horse fossil is younger than the large horse fossil.

B.   The tiny horse fossil and the larger horse fossil are the same age.

C.  The tiny horse fossil is older than the larger horse fossil.

D.  The larger horse fossil is older than the tiny horse fossil.