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09 Mid Term

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Igneous rocks that form ____ the surface are intrusive.
a.
above
c.
on
b.
below
d.
all of the above
 

 2. 

The presence of the same ____ on several continents supports the hypothesis of continental drift.
a.
fossils
c.
neither a nor b
b.
rocks
d.
both a and b
 

 3. 

Soil is a mixture of weathered rock, mineral fragments, water, air and ____.
a.
sand
c.
moss
b.
decayed organic matter
d.
clay
 

 4. 

The rock and mineral fragments in soil come from rock that has been ____.
a.
blasted
c.
weathered
b.
carved
d.
chemically treated
 

 5. 

Minerals found in the B horizon were dissolved in water and carried there by a process called ____.
a.
oxidation
c.
weathering
b.
leaching
d.
littering
 

 6. 

Mechanical weathering is more rapid in a ____ climate.
a.
dry
c.
cold
b.
hot
d.
humid
 

 7. 

Most earthquakes happen ____.
a.
without warning
b.
in areas where earthquakes have occurred in the past
c.
along plate boundaries
d.
all of the above
 

 8. 

Igneous rocks form from ____ when it cools.
a.
magma
c.
neither a nor b
b.
lava
d.
both a and b
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
Figure 4-1
 

 9. 

The rock cycle shown in Figure 4-1 indicates that each type of rock can ____.
a.
provide materials to make other rocks
b.
form other rocks
c.
be changed by forces at Earth's surface
d.
all of the above
 

 10. 

When water mixes with carbon dioxide gas in the air or soil, ____ forms.
a.
carbonic acid
c.
calcite
b.
lactic acid
d.
oxygen
 

 11. 

When lava cools at Earth's surface, ____ igneous rocks are formed.
a.
extrusive
c.
intrusive
b.
metamorphic
d.
coarse-grained
 

 12. 

Plates slide past one another at ____.
a.
subduction zones
c.
convection currents
b.
transform boundaries
d.
divergent boundaries
 

 13. 

Litter often covers the ____ horizon.
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
all of the above
 

 14. 

The ____ is (are) an example of a transform boundary.
a.
Appalachian Mountains
c.
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
b.
Himalaya
d.
San Andreas Fault
 

 15. 

When the force on rocks is great enough, they break, producing vibrations called ____.
a.
faults
c.
strains
b.
earthquakes
d.
stresses
 
 
nar002-1.jpg
Figure 10-1
 

 16. 

According to Figure 10-1, what type of plate boundary occurs between the North American Plate and the Eurasian Plate?
a.
transform boundary
b.
divergent boundary
c.
convergent oceanic-continental plate boundary
d.
convergent oceanic-oceanic plate boundary
 

 17. 

A lack of explanation for continental drift prevented many scientists from accepting that a single supercontinent called ____ once existed.
a.
Glomar
c.
Pangaea
b.
Glossopteris
d.
Wegener
 

 18. 

When magma cools deep inside Earth, ____ igneous rocks are formed.
a.
extrusive
c.
detrital
b.
fine-grained
d.
intrusive
 

 19. 

Sedimentary rocks are ____.
a.
formed from magma
b.
a type of foliated igneous rock
c.
formed because of changes in temperature and pressure, or the presence of hot watery fluids
d.
formed when loose materials become pressed or cemented together or when minerals form from solutions
 

 20. 

A rock is always ____.
a.
made of molten material
b.
a mixture of minerals, organic matter, volcanic glass, or other materials
c.
formed by heat and pressure
d.
either igneous or sedimentary
 

 21. 

Chemical weathering ____.
a.
is caused by freezing and thawing
b.
breaks apart rocks by physical processes
c.
occurs when chemical reactions dissolve or change the minerals in rocks
d.
none of above
 

 22. 

Mechanical weathering ____.
a.
breaks apart rocks by physical processes
b.
occurs when chemical reactions dissolve or change the minerals in rocks
c.
occurs when iron is exposed to oxygen and water
d.
none of the above
 

 23. 

The point in Earth's interior where the energy release of an earthquake occurs is the ____.
a.
focus
c.
fault
b.
epicenter
d.
inner core
 

 24. 

The most destructive seismic wave are ____.
a.
primary waves
c.
P-waves
b.
secondary waves
d.
surface waves
 

 25. 

The result of plate movement can be seen at ____.
a.
abyssal plains
c.
plate centers
b.
ocean margins
d.
plate boundaries
 

 26. 

Plants don't grow as well when ____ has been lost.
a.
clay
c.
parent rock
b.
topsoil
d.
slope
 

 27. 

Seafloor spreading occurs because ____.
a.
new material is being added to the asthenosphere
b.
earthquakes break apart the ocean floor
c.
sediments accumulate at the area of spreading
d.
molten material beneath Earth's crust rises to the surface
 

 28. 

At a(n) ____ fault, rocks on either side of the fault surface move past each other.
a.
normal
c.
reverse
b.
elastic
d.
strike-slip
 

 29. 

Kilauea in Hawaii is the world's most ____ volcano.
a.
dormant
c.
explosive
b.
active
d.
all of the above
 

 30. 

The magnitude of an earthquake is measured by the ____.
a.
Richter scale
c.
modified Mazeratti scale
b.
moho discontinuity
d.
elastic limit
 

 31. 

One of the softest minerals is ____.
a.
topaz
c.
talc
b.
quartz
d.
amethyst
 

 32. 

The youngest rocks on the ocean floor are located ____.
a.
near continents
c.
far from mid-ocean ridges
b.
at mid-ocean ridges
d.
near Asia
 

 33. 

Ice wedging is brought about by ____.
a.
carbonic acid freezing on rocks
c.
water freezing and thawing
b.
water and oxygen reacting
d.
rocks colliding with each other
 

 34. 

Oxidation occurs when materials containing ____ are exposed to oxygen and water.
a.
iron
c.
kaolinite
b.
carbonic acid
d.
all of the above
 

 35. 

Plates of the lithosphere float on the ____.
a.
crust
c.
core
b.
asthenosphere
d.
atmosphere
 

 36. 

When farmers leave plant stalks in the field to reduce soil erosion, it is called ____.
a.
contour farming
c.
no-till farming
b.
plowing
d.
terracing
 

 37. 

The layer of soil that contains the most organic material is called the ____ horizon.
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 38. 

Wegener believed that the continents originally broke apart about ____ years ago.
a.
200 million
c.
400 million
b.
300 million
d.
500 million
 

 39. 

A ____ forms where two oceanic plates collide.
a.
hot spot
c.
transform boundary
b.
subduction zone
d.
rift valley
 

 40. 

The crust and upper mantle make up Earth's ____.
a.
lithosphere
c.
core
b.
asthenosphere
d.
continents
 

 41. 

All of the following cause mechanical weathering EXCEPT ____.
a.
ice
c.
burrowing animals
b.
tree roots
d.
carbonic acid
 

 42. 

The boundary between two plates moving together is called a ____.
a.
divergent boundary
c.
transform boundary
b.
convergent boundary
d.
lithosphere
 

 43. 

____ are formed when two continental plates collide.
a.
Volcanoes
c.
Mountain ranges
b.
Strike-slip faults
d.
Rift valleys
 

 44. 

The organic matter in humus is made of ____.
a.
dead worms
c.
roots
b.
leaves
d.
all of the above
 

 45. 

Plates move apart at ____ boundaries.
a.
convergent
c.
divergent
b.
stable
d.
transform
 

 46. 

Quartz is a mineral; granite is ____.
a.
also a mineral
c.
a gem
b.
a rock
d.
an ore
 

 47. 

All minerals share the following characteristics EXCEPT that of ____.
a.
being formed by natural processes
b.
being formed from living organisms
c.
being solids
d.
having the atoms within the mineral arranged in a pattern
 

 48. 

The hypothesis that continents have slowly moved to their current locations is called ____.
a.
continental drift
c.
magnetic reversal
b.
continental slope
d.
convection
 

 49. 

The ____ waves are the fastest and the first to reach a seismograph after an earthquake.
a.
surface
c.
primary
b.
secondary
d.
tsunami
 

 50. 

Scientists discovered changes in Earth's interior by studying ____.
a.
tsunamis
c.
changes in seismic waves
b.
tides
d.
all of the above
 



 
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