Climate and Weather Notes 2019

1. meteorology-the study of the atmosphere                      

2. weather is the condition of the air around the Earth in a particular place at a particular time

3. weather happens in the atmosphere! Weather is today.

4. Climate is the long term measure of the temperature and humidity of an area. Climate is history!

5.  heating and cooling of the air causes changes in air pressure.

6. Air pressure is the weight of air pressing on everything around it.

7. barometer-an instrument that measures air pressure.

8. All winds are caused by differences in air pressure, which are the result of unequal heating of EarthÕs surface and the coriolis effect.

9. Wind is the movement of air from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure.

10.  global winds circle the Earth and are caused by uneven heating  between the equator and the north and south poles.

11.  The trade winds-blow from the east, they are close to the equator and the westerlies blow from the west, and carry the weather across the United States.

12. Jet streams are narrow bands of strong winds that blow near the top of the troposphere.  Jet stream helps move winter storms across the country from the west to the east. 

13. sea breezes-during the day, land heats quicker causing the air to heat and rise.  The cool ocean air comes in to replace the warm rising land air

14. land breezes-during the night, the ocean is warmer than the land.  Air over the ocean rises and the cool air over the land goes out to sea to replace it.

15. Water vapor in the air is called humidity.

16. Relative humidity is the amount of water vapor that the air is holding compared with the amount that it could hold at that temperature.

17.   H - Cold air is heavier and produces a High pressure area

18.   L  - warm air is lighter and produces a Low pressure area

20. The line where warm and cold air masses is called a front.

21. high pressure systems are often called cold fronts

22. low pressure systems are often called warm fronts

23. front-where one air mass meets and pushes aside another air mass.

24. cold front-cold air pushes in under warm air, pushing it away, can produce heavy rains and colder weather, and strong winds.

25. warm front-meets and overrides a cold air mass slowly warming the cold air, bring drizzly precipitation then warm weather.  

26. air mass-large body of air that has about the same temperature and humidity throughout; is affected by the area it is formed over.

27.  air masses are identified with 2 letter symbols.  1st letter is moisture level & 2nd letter is temperature.  4 major air mass types-

     m-maritime forms over water, lots of humidity c- continental forms over land and is dry

     P- polar forms over the polar regions and is COLD    T- tropical forms over the Tropics and is warm


28. Thunderstorms are caused by powerful up-and-down movements of air. United States has more thunderstorms than any place on earth.

29. A tornado is a rapidly whirling, funnel-shaped cloud that reaches down from a storm cloud to touch EarthÕs surface.

30. Hurricanes are the world's most powerful storms.  Form near the equator over warm water. Gain energy from warm weather. Start losing strength over land and cold water.