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Weathering and Soil 1 and 2

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Surface processes that work to break down rock are called__________.
a.
erosion
c.
ice wedging
b.
weathering
d.
oxidation
 

 2. 

Mechanical weathering ____.
a.
breaks apart rocks by physical processes
b.
occurs when chemical reactions dissolve or change the minerals in rocks
c.
occurs when iron is exposed to oxygen and water
d.
none of the above
 

 3. 

All of the following cause mechanical weathering EXCEPT ____.
a.
ice
c.
burrowing animals
b.
tree roots
d.
carbonic acid
 

 4. 

Ice wedging is brought about by ____.
a.
carbonic acid freezing on rocks
c.
water freezing and thawing
b.
water and oxygen reacting
d.
rocks colliding with each other
 

 5. 

Chemical weathering is more rapid in a ____ climate.
a.
warm, dry
c.
cold, dry
b.
warm, wet
d.
cold, wet
 

 6. 

Mechanical weathering is more rapid in a ____ climate.
a.
dry
c.
cold
b.
hot
d.
humid
 

 7. 

Why is ice wedging most obvious in the mountains?
a.
because the altitude directly contributes to how the water freezes in the cracks of rocks
c.
because the pressure in the mountains allows for the repeated freezing and thawing of water caught in cracks of rocks
b.
because gravity pulls on the water in the cracks more if its found higher in the mountains
d.
because the temperature changes in the mountains allow for the repeated freezing and thawing of water caught in cracks of rocks
 

 8. 

The rate of weathering depends upon the area's ____.
a.
oxygen
c.
water
b.
climate
d.
soil
 

 9. 

The difference between mechanical and chemical weathering is ____.
a.
the length of time each takes to break up a rock
b.
that only chemical weathering involves water
c.
the way they affect the makeup of a rock
d.
all of the above
 

 10. 

Chemical weathering ____.
a.
is caused by freezing and thawing
b.
breaks apart rocks by physical processes
c.
occurs when chemical reactions dissolve or change the minerals in rocks
d.
none of above
 

 11. 

____ is a factor that affects soil development.
a.
Time
c.
Type of rock
b.
Slope
d.
all of the above
 

 12. 

In areas where freezing and thawing occur frequently, rocks weather rapidly because of the ____ of freezing water.
a.
evaporation
c.
leaching
b.
expansion
d.
oxidation
 

 13. 

When water mixes with carbon dioxide gas in the air or soil, ____ forms.
a.
carbonic acid
c.
calcite
b.
lactic acid
d.
oxygen
 

 14. 

     
How do chemical and mechanical weathering differ?
a.
Mechanical weathering occurs when rocks are broken by physical processes, and chemical weathering happens when chemical reactions dissolve minerals.
c.
Chemical weathering can occur with the help of water reacting with carbon dioxide, and water has nothing to do with mechanical weathering.
b.
Mechanical and chemical weathering can happen with the help of animals.
d.
Plant roots can help mechanical weathering occur, but have no impact on soil when it comes to chemical weathering.
 

 15. 

When water mixes with carbon dioxide in the air, it forms __________.
a.
sulfuric acid
c.
carbonic acid
b.
hydrochloric acid
d.
ozone
 

 16. 

Oxidation occurs when materials containing ____ are exposed to oxygen and water.
a.
iron
c.
kaolinite
b.
carbonic acid
d.
all of the above
 

 17. 

How is surface area related to chemical weathering?
a.
Decreased surface area allows for more interactions of rocks with water and oxygen.
c.
Increased surface area allows for more interactions of rocks with water and oxygen.
b.
Increased surface area allows for more interactions of rocks with plants and animals.
d.
Decreased surface area allows for more ice wedging.
 

 18. 

How does climate affect chemical and mechanical weathering?
a.
Mechanical weathering occurs more rapidly in warm, wet climates, and chemical weathering occurs more in cold climates.
c.
Chemical weathering occurs more rapidly in dry climates and mechanical weathering occurs more in windy climates.
b.
Chemical weathering occurs more rapidly in warm, wet climates, and mechanical weathering occurs more in cold climates.
d.
Chemical and mechanical weathering occur more rapidly in warm, wet climates.
 

 19. 

Soil is a mixture of weathered rock, mineral fragments, water, air and ____.
a.
sand
c.
moss
b.
decayed organic matter
d.
clay
 

 20. 

Plants cannot grow without ____.
a.
rocks
c.
moss
b.
soil
d.
pesticides
 

 21. 

The layer of soil that contains the most organic material is called the ____ horizon.
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 22. 

Litter often covers the ____ horizon.
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
all of the above
 

 23. 

The organic matter in humus is made of ____.
a.
dead worms
c.
roots
b.
plant stems
d.
all of the above
 

 24. 

The rock and mineral fragments in soil come from rock that has been ____.
a.
blasted
c.
weathered
b.
carved
d.
chemically treated
 

 25. 

Soils in ____ contain little organic material and are thin.
a.
tropical areas
c.
prairies
b.
deserts
d.
temperate forests
 

 26. 

____ regions are especially vulnerable to erosion because their soils are useful to farmers for only a few years before their nutrients are gone.
a.
Desert
c.
Mountain
b.
Tropical
d.
Prairie
 

 27. 

Minerals found in the B horizon were dissolved in water and carried there by a process called ____.
a.
oxidation
c.
weathering
b.
leaching
d.
littering
 

 28. 

In bottomlands where water is plentiful, soil is often ____.
a.
thin
c.
thick
b.
rocky
d.
light
 

 29. 

The B horizon is ____.
a.
rockier than the C horizon
c.
lighter than the A horizon
b.
richer in humus than the A horizon
d.
thinner than the C horizon
 

 30. 

Plants don't grow as well when ____ has been lost.
a.
clay
c.
parent rock
b.
topsoil
d.
slope
 

 31. 

The ____ horizon has smaller rock and mineral particles than the other layers.
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 32. 

Below the C horizon is ____.
a.
topsoil
c.
clay
b.
rock
d.
humus
 

 33. 

Because desert soils contain little organic material, their soil profiles have ____ horizons.
a.
thick
c.
thin
b.
no
d.
b or c
 

 34. 

A soil's composition is dependent on weathering because __________.
a.
it makes the soil more fertile
c.
it keeps the soil moist
b.
it contributes sediment to the soil
d.
it moves the topsoil to other areas where it is more needed
 

 35. 

Soil is a mixture of __________.
a.
weathered rock and water
c.
mineral fragments
b.
decayed organic matter and oxygen
d.
all of these
 

 36. 

Decayed organic material turns into a dark colored material called ___________.
a.
litter
c.
humus
b.
clay
d.
soil
 

 37. 

Each layer of a soil profile is called a __________.
a.
horizon
c.
humus
b.
horizontal
d.
litter
 

 38. 

mc038-1.jpg
Which of these layers would contain the most humus?
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
all have the same amount
 

 39. 

mc039-1.jpg     
In which horizon of a soil profile does leaching normally occur?
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
neither of these
 

 40. 

Climate affects soil types; for instance, prairie soils have __________.
a.
thinner A and B horizons due to leaching, which is promoted by rainfall
c.
granitic C horizons because little or no grass grows there
b.
thin, lightly colored A horizons because of the lack of vegetation
d.
thick, dark, A horizons because of all the grasses that contribute organic materials
 



 
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