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Erosion Pretest

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

mc001-1.jpg
Students in a science class examined an unknown material. They found that it was made of four main components. They recorded the percent of each component in the graph above.
Based on this evidence, what is the unknown substance?
a.
soil
c.
concrete
b.
quartz
d.
igneous rock
 

 2. 

Farmers prefer to plant crops in soil that is rich in nutrients. Which of these soil types would MOST LIKELY contain the most nutrients?
a.
soil that has many large rock particles in it
c.
soil with a bedrock that is very close to the surface
b.
soil that allows water to drain very easily through it
d.
soil with a lot of decomposed organic material in it
 

 3. 

Soils have four basic components. What important soil component is a by-product of the action of decomposers like bacteria and fungus?
a.
silt
c.
air space
b.
humus
d.
minerals
 

 4. 

In cold climates rocks are broken into pieces by the action of water. This process that breaks down rocks and helps form soil can best be explained as
a.
leaching of minerals from the rock.
c.
chemical weathering due to water reacting with calcite.
b.
decomposition due to the action of ice crystals
d.
mechanical weathering due to alternate freezing and thawing.
 

 5. 

Chemical weathering of rocks occurs and helps to form soils. Which of the following is an agent of chemical weathering?
a.
acid rain
c.
tree roots growing through rocks
b.
freezing and thawing
d.
rocks tumbling in a river or stream
 

 6. 

Humus, silt, clay, and sand are all parts of —
a.
fungi
c.
soil
b.
rocks
d.
plants
 

 7. 

Organic matter in soil is made from —
a.
weathered parent rock.
c.
acid rain
b.
decayed plants and animals
d.
carbon dioxide
 

 8. 

Which of these is NOT a part of soil?
a.
humus
c.
plastic
b.
bits of rock
d.
clay
 

 9. 

Because of the long drought, hay is in short supply and Farmer Brown is letting his cattle over-graze his pastures. Because of the over-grazing, what should he predict will happen?
a.
The soil will become more fertile.
c.
The soil will be eroded by wind and water
b.
The grass in the pasture will grow faster.
d.
The soil will become water soaked in the spring
 

 10. 

Farmer Brown has cut down a stand of pine trees so he can plant corn in the spring. What would be a practical solution to help stop soil erosion during the fall and winter when the corn is not growing?
a.
He could let cows graze in the field
c.
He could surround the corn field with shrubs and a fence.
b.
He could dig a pond next to the corn field
d.
He could plow the corn under and then let the field lay dormant
 

 11. 

Tropical rain forests are being cut down to create farms and pastures, and to harvest trees for construction. What has this type deforestation increased?
a.
soil erosion
c.
fertilizers
b.
soil moisture
d.
microorganisms
 

 12. 

Sedimentary rocks are not found on the Moon because
a.
there is no silicon on the Moon
c.
the Moon’s gravity is too weak
b.
lava flows are missing from the surface
d.
there is no weathering on the Moon
 

 13. 

The major process that wears down whole mountain ranges is
a.
earthquakes
c.
plate movement
b.
weathering
d.
silt deposition
 

 14. 

The surfaces of old concrete statues are often covered with small holes or pits. Which of these MOST LIKELY causes these holes or pits?
a.
long exposure to sunlight causes the pits to form
c.
the concrete is chipped away by sand particles blown by strong winds
b.
the concrete is chemically weathered by acid rain
d.
the concrete becomes pitted as water freezes in small cracks in the statue
 

 15. 

mc015-1.jpg
Over time, this rocky cliff will become many smaller rocks and eventually sand particles. This is due to which process?
a.
erosion
c.
weathering
b.
deposition
d.
evaporization
 



 
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