Use the information on this page to create a study guide, poster, small presentation, or mini-project to help you remember this information and to be able to share it with the class.


Part One, Earth's water info:

Hydrosphere-all the water on the Earth


Water covers 75% of the Earth’s surface.


Oceanographer-a scientist who studies the oceans


Meteorologist-a scientist who studies the atmosphere and weather. 


97% of the Earth’s water is salt water.


3% of the Earth’s water is fresh!


Salt water contains salt (sodium chloride) and gases.


Salinity is the amount of salt in salt water


Ocean water is 3.5% salinity


Salt water is found in the oceans, seas, and salt lakes.


Freshwater is only 3% of the Earth’s water.


2/3‘s or 66% of Earth’s freshwater is frozen in the ice caps and glaciers.


1/3 or 33% of Earth's freshwater is useable by mankind  


This means that "Only 1% of Earth’s water is useable by man!!!"


Groundwater, rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere makeup the 1% of Earths water that we can use.


Groundwater is stored in aquifers. 






aquifer is an underground layer of permeable rock that contains water


layers of soil above an aquifer filter out pollution


aquifer water is slowly moving towards the ocean.


Permeable rock has spaces in it that can contain water. Pores are the spaces in permeable rock.  


Water Sources


Rural families and small towns usually get their water from wells drilled down into the aquifer


Cities usually get their water from reservoirs.   Reservoirs are large lakes that are used to provide water to cities.


Cities may also use rivers as water supplies.

  Part Two, use this for Water Cycle Mini-project.

Exciting new idea:  Make a 3-D water cycle model:  Watch this video:


Hydrologic Cycle Info

hydrologic or water cycle-endless process in which water evaporates from oceans and lakes, condenses into clouds and returns to the Earth as precipitation.


3 major steps of hydrologic cycle-

a. evaporation,

b. condensation, and

c. precipitation







evaporation-water changing into a gas called water vapor. Water vapor is invisible, we cannot see water vapor.


transpiration-plants losing water vapor to the air through leaves (plant sweat! )


evapotranspiration- combination of evaporation and transpiration-water into gas


condensation-water vapor cooling down enough to change into tiny droplets of water.


clouds are caused by condensation.


We can "C" condensation, cooling causes condensation, clouds are condensation!!!  Condensation is tiny droplets of water. 




precipitation-when water droplets in the sky get large enough for gravity to pull them towards the ground.  Liquid and solid forms of water falling from the sky to the ground. 4 types of precipitation-rain, snow, sleet, and hail.




Infiltration-a portion of the precipitation that reaches the Earth's surface seeps into the ground, adding to the aquifer.


runoff-water from precipitation making its way back into the ocean.


Precipitation forms when water droplets about the size of a period in a sentence start growing, must get about 100 times larger to fall.


dew point-the temperature at which air becomes saturated with water vapor and condensation begins.


condensation occurs at the dew point.


amount of water vapor in air affects dew point.


water must condense on something solid.  Dew forms on grass.


Dew evaporates as the day warms up!


clouds form when water vapor condenses on dust, smoke or even salt particles from the ocean.


  Get a copy of the Water Cycle Sketch and label and explain what is happening.