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Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The youngest rocks on the ocean floor are located ____.
a.
near continents
c.
far from mid-ocean ridges
b.
at mid-ocean ridges
d.
near Asia
 

 2. 

The crust and upper mantle make up Earth's ____.
a.
lithosphere
c.
core
b.
asthenosphere
d.
continents
 

 3. 

Plates of the lithosphere float on the ____.
a.
crust
c.
core
b.
asthenosphere
d.
atmosphere
 

 4. 

Plates move apart at ____ boundaries.
a.
convergent
c.
divergent
b.
stable
d.
transform
 

 5. 

Plates slide past one another at ____.
a.
subduction zones
c.
convection currents
b.
transform boundaries
d.
divergent boundaries
 

 6. 

The boundary between two plates moving together is called a ____.
a.
divergent boundary
c.
transform boundary
b.
convergent boundary
d.
lithosphere
 

 7. 

Wegener believed that the continents originally broke apart about ____ years ago.
a.
200 million
c.
400 million
b.
300 million
d.
500 million
 

 8. 

A ____ is a sensitive device used to detect magnetic fields on the seafloor.
a.
seismometer
c.
Glomar
b.
geologist's compass
d.
magnetometer
 

 9. 

____ currents inside Earth might drive plate motion.
a.
Vertical
c.
Horizontal
b.
Convection
d.
none of the above
 

 10. 

Active volcanoes are most likely to form at ____.
a.
transform boundaries
b.
divergent boundaries
c.
the center of continents
d.
convergent oceanic–continental boundaries
 

 11. 

____ are formed when two continental plates collide.
a.
Volcanoes
c.
Mountain ranges
b.
Strike-slip faults
d.
Rift valleys
 

 12. 

The ____ is (are) an example of a transform boundary.
a.
Appalachian Mountains
c.
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
b.
Himalaya
d.
San Andreas Fault
 

 13. 

When the force on rocks is great enough, they break, producing vibrations called ____.
a.
faults
c.
strains
b.
earthquakes
d.
stresses
 

 14. 

Most earthquakes happen ____.
a.
without warning
b.
in areas where earthquakes have occurred in the past
c.
along plate boundaries
d.
all of the above
 

 15. 

The most destructive seismic wave are ____.
a.
primary waves
c.
P-waves
b.
secondary waves
d.
surface waves
 

 16. 

The ____ waves(fastest) are the first to reach a seismograph after an earthquake.
a.
surface
c.
primary
b.
secondary
d.
tsunami
 

 17. 

The point in Earth's interior where the energy release of an earthquake occurs is the ____.
a.
focus
c.
fault
b.
border
d.
inner core
 

 18. 

The magnitude of an earthquake is measured by the ____.
a.
Richter scale
c.
modified Meralli scale
b.
moho discontinuity
d.
elastic limit
 

 19. 

A ____ often forms a mountain when layers of lava and volcanic ash erupt and build up.
a.
caldera
c.
dike
b.
volcano
d.
batholith
 

 20. 

Kilauea in Hawaii is the world's most ____ volcano.
a.
dormant
c.
explosive
b.
active
d.
all of the above
 

 21. 

More than ____ of Earth's volcanoes are currently active.
a.
1,600
c.
100
b.
1,500
d.
600
 

 22. 

Which is the thickest layer of Earth?
a.
crust
c.
mantle
b.
inner core
d.
outer core
 

 23. 

An earthquake is caused by sudden shifts in which of the following layers of Earth?
a.
outer core
c.
inner core
b.
crust
d.
mesosphere
 

 24. 

Use the Mercalli scale below to answer this question.
Scale Felt Intensity
2 Lamps swing
4 Dishes and windows break
6 Chairs, beds, table move
8 Walls collapse
10 Roads crack, landslides
12 Total destruction
  
      You are eating dinner when the lamp above the table begins to swing. After a few seconds it stops. According to the Mercalli scale, how strong was the earthquake you felt?
a.
magnitude 2
c.
magnitude 6
b.
magnitude 4
d.
magnitude 8
 

 25. 

The crustal plates of Earth move due to being dragged along with
a.
convection currents in the mantle.
c.
the high tides of the oceans.
b.
the rotation of Earth on its axis.
d.
prevailing winds in the jet stream.
 

 26. 

 Use the diagram below to answer this question.
mc026-1.jpg
The event that occurred along line XY is most appropriately described as
a.
erosion.
c.
a sedimentary deposition.
b.
faulting.
d.
a volcanic eruption.
 

 27. 

Areas on Earth's surface that lie above the borders of tectonic plates are characterized by
a.
frequent earthquake activity.
c.
stable temperate climate conditions.
b.
lengthy formations of sea arches.
d.
a lack of plant and animal life.
 

 28. 

When magma reaches Earth's surface it becomes
a.
gas.
c.
energy.
b.
steam.
d.
lava.
 

 29. 

A boundary where two tectonic plates come together, or collide, is called a
a.
divergent boundary.
c.
transform boundary.
b.
convergent boundary.
d.
transfer boundary.
 

 30. 

Which accurately describes the relationship between earthquakes and volcanoes?
a.
Earthquakes usually cause volcanoes to erupt.
b.
Volcanic eruptions usually cause severe earthquakes.
c.
Earthquakes and volcanoes often are located where tectonic plates meet.
d.
Earthquakes and volcanoes are not related in any way.
 

 31. 

The San Andreas Fault in Mexico and California is watched carefully for signs of an expected earthquake. Why do scientists think an earthquake might happen there?
a.
The chances of a major earthquake in California have increased greatly because there has been so much construction there.
b.
Everyplace on Earth's crust has a probability of earthquakes and the San Andreas Fault has never had one.
c.
The San Andreas is a known major fault where pressure for lateral movement has been building for many years.
d.
The San Andreas Fault is the line that divides the part of California that is sinking into the Pacific Ocean.
 

 32. 

Many places on Earth are shaken by earthquakes. The Pacific Coast of the United States is one such area. What causes these earthquakes?
a.
erosion
c.
solar heating
b.
gravity
d.
plate movement
 

 33. 


The diagram shows layers of sedimentary rocks and examples of their fossils. Which layer contains the oldest fossils?
mc033-1.jpg
a.
1
c.
3
b.
2
d.
4
 



 
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