Write your answers on a sheet of paper.  Do not write numbers of letters, write the answers. 

1.  The diagram below shows the different positions of Earth around the Sun during a year.

In which position is the Northern Hemisphere experiencing winter?

  1. position 1
  2. position 2
  3. position 3
  4. position 4

 

2.
David is listing the characteristics of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres of Earth during different months for a science project.

Which statement can be included in his list for the month of January?

  1. The Southern Hemisphere of Earth is tilted toward the Sun.
  2. The Northern Hemisphere of Earth is tilted toward the Sun.
  3. The Southern Hemisphere of Earth gets less direct sunlight from the Sun than the Northern Hemisphere.
  4. The Northern Hemisphere of Earth gets the same amount of direct sunlight from the Sun as the Southern Hemisphere.

 

3.
What causes summers in the Northern Hemisphere when the Southern Hemisphere is experiencing winters?

  1. changes in the amount of sunlight caused by the tilt of Earth on its axis
  2. differences in pressure between the two hemispheres
  3. rotation of Earth on its axis once every 24 hours
  4. revolution of the Moon around Earth

 

4.
Margaret studied the Earth’s tilt and orbit. She learned that Earth’s Northern Hemisphere direct radiation from the Sun in a certain season.

During which season is the Northern Hemisphere getting the most energy/radiation?

  1. fall
  2. spring
  3. summer
  4. winter

 

5.  Which hemisphere is having its winter in January? Which hemisphere is having its winter in July?

  1. Winter is occurring in the Southern Hemisphere in January but in the Northern Hemisphere in July.
  2. Winter is occurring in the Northern Hemisphere in January but in the Southern Hemisphere in July.
  3. Winter is occurring in the Southern Hemisphere in January and in the Southern Hemisphere in July.
  4. Winter is occurring in the Northern Hemisphere in January and in the Northern Hemisphere in July.

 

6.
How much sunlight does the South Pole receive at the peak of summer and winter?

  1. Summer: 0 hours of light
  2. Winter: 24 hours of light
  3. Summer: 12 hours of light
  4. Winter: 24 hours of light
  5. Summer: 24 hours of light
  6. Winter: 0 hours of light
  7. Summer: 12 hours of light
  8. Winter: 12 hours of light

 

7.
Which statement BEST describes the positions of Earth and the Sun during different months?

  1. Earth is closer to the Sun in January than in July.
  2. Earth is farther from the Sun in January than in July.
  3. Earth is at an equal distance from the Sun in all twelve months.
  4. Earth is at an equal distance from the Sun in July and January.

 

8.
A family living in Nevada has solar panels attached to the roof of their home. Even though the Sun shines all year long,

the panels do not absorb the same amount of solar energy all year long.

Explain why the solar panels do not absorb the same amount of solar energy all year long. In your answer, be sure to include:

  1. How the seasons contribute to the amount of solar energy absorbed
  2. How Earth’s tilt contributes to the amount of solar energy absorbed

Use words, numbers, and/or pictures to show your work. Write your answer(s) on the paper provided.

 

9.
Scientific evidence shows that the angle of Earth’s tilt cycles between 22 and 25 degrees over periods of 41,000 years.

Currently, the tilt is about 23.5 degrees.  

  1. How would an increase in the tilt affect the seasons in the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere? 
  2. How would a decrease in the tilt affect the seasons in the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere?

Use words, numbers, and/or pictures to show your work. Write your answer(s) on the paper provided.

 

10.
What place on the map has 12-hour days and 12-hour nights throughout the year?

  1. Quito
  2. North Pole
  3. Whitehorse
  4. New Orleans

 

11.
Emma is part of a long-term study of the weather during the winter in a particular area.  This area experiences 24 hours of darkness and its coldest temperatures in January..

Where on Earth is the area Emma is studying? Explain how you know, and explain what causes this weather in the area. Write your response in your Answer Document. (4 points)

 

12.
Emily learns that the North and South Poles have six months of daylight and six months of darkness. Which reason explains this phenomenon?

  1. tilt of Earth on its axis
  2. spin of Earth on its axis
  3. distance of Earth from the sun
  4. force of gravity acting on Earth

 

 


13.
How do the rays of the Sun, as shown in figure 2, affect the seasons on the northern and southern parts of Earth?

  1. Both the northern and southern parts of Earth are in winter, as both receive the slanting rays of the Sun.
  2. Both the northern and southern parts of Earth are in summer, as both receive the direct rays of the Sun.
  3. The southern parts of Earth are in summer and receive more direct rays of the Sun than the northern parts of Earth.
  4. The northern parts of Earth are in summer and receive more direct rays of the Sun than the southern parts of Earth.

 

14.  During July, the part of Earth where Serwa lives has very cold weather. Where does Serwa MOST LIKELY live?

  1. near the equator
  2. in the Northern Hemisphere
  3. in the Southern Hemisphere
  4. near the tropic of Capricorn

 

15.
A city near C on the map experiences an equinox twice a year. At an equinox, what are day and night like near point C?

  1. Day and night are each 12 hours long.
  2. Day is 24 hours long and there is no night.
  3. Night is 24 hours long and there is no day.
  4. Night is 16 hours long and day is 8 hours long.

 

16.
Which place has exactly one day of 24-hour daylight and one day of 24-hour darkness each year? Use the information from the map.

  1. New York
  2. Belem, Brazil
  3. Antarctic Circle
  4. Cordoba, Argentina

 

17.
If the Earth is constantly rotating, why is it that during the summer, some parts of Alaska see sunlight 24 hours a day for weeks

without the Sun setting?

  1. Alaska is close to a pole, and the Earth rotates slower at the pole, so the days are longer.
  2. Because Alaska is so big, some parts of the state see sunlight while it’s dark in other parts.
  3. Since the Earth is tilted and Alaska is so far north, part of Alaska faces the Sun for many days during the summer months.
  4. During the summer, the Sun is rotating directly above Alaska, so there is daylight 24 hours a day.

 

18.
At the spring equinox, the Sun is directly over the equator.   

  1. On this day, how many hours of daylight would a person see at the equator (to the nearest hour)?
  2. One day after the spring equinox, how many hours of daylight would a person see at the North Pole?
  3. One day after the spring equinox, how many hours of daylight would a person see at the South Pole? 

Use words, numbers, and/or pictures to show your work. Write your answer(s) on the paper provided.

 

19.
In some parts of the United States, there are fewer hours of sunlight during the winter than during the summer.
Why does this happen?

Why would New York City get more hours of daylight during the Summer than Miami, Florida?

 

20.  If the Earth was not tilted, what would be different about the Earth?