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astronomers

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which planet is closest to the Sun?
a.
Jupiter
c.
Venus
b.
Mars
d.
Mercury
 

 2. 

A spacecraft sent into deep space to collect data using cameras and instruments is a
a.
probe.
c.
station.
b.
satellite.
d.
shuttle.
 

 3. 

Astronomers determine the chemical composition of stars by using a
a.
telescope.
c.
kaleidoscope.
b.
spectroscope.
d.
stethoscope.
 

 4. 

We can be sure that the Milky Way galaxy we live in is a spiral galaxy rather than an elliptical galaxy because
a.
it has curved arms.
c.
its stars are all about the same age.
b.
it does not show any rotation.
d.
new stars are no longer forming.
 

 5. 

Earth stays in orbit around the Sun because of inertia and
a.
friction.
c.
magnetism.
b.
gravity.
d.
momentum.
 

 6. 

Which is the largest object in the solar system?
a.
Earth
c.
the Sun
b.
Jupiter
d.
the Moon
 

 7. 

If you were to watch the stars all night, they would seem to
a.
stay in exactly the same place in the sky.
b.
move across the sky at night, as the Sun does during the day.
c.
go in circles around the point straight up from where you are.
d.
move across the sky at night, in the opposite direction that the Sun moves during the day.
 

 8. 

According to the big bang theory, the universe originated as a
a.
point where all matter and energy was concentrated.
b.
complex system of galaxies that has since been expanding.
c.
complete, limitless void without any matter or energy.
d.
massive sphere of matter and energy with near-infinite diameter.
 

 9. 

There are several different types of galaxies. The Milky Way, which contains our solar system, is
a.
a spiral galaxy.
c.
a barred spiral galaxy.
b.
an elliptical galaxy.
d.
an irregular galaxy.
 

 10. 

According to ____, the Earth is at the center of the universe.
a.
the Ptolomaic theory
c.
Galileo's theory
b.
Copernicus's theory
d.
None of the above
 

 11. 

The first scientist to successfully use a telescope to observe the night sky was
a.
Tycho.
c.
Herschel.
b.
Galileo.
d.
Kepler.
 

 12. 

Copernicus’s theory was unpopular when he first proposed it because he stated that the sun was
a.
the center of the solar system.
c.
a source of energy.
b.
an average star.
d.
about 93 million miles away.
 

 13. 

The first scientist to explain why planets orbit the sun was
a.
Newton.
c.
Copernicus.
b.
Galileo.
d.
Kepler.
 

 14. 

____ was the first to publish a theory that eventually revolutionized astronomy—that the sun is at the center of the universe and the planets orbit the sun.
a.
Aristotle
c.
Tycho Brahe
b.
Nicolaus Copernicus
d.
Isaac Newton
 

 15. 

____ explained why moons orbit planets—gravity.
a.
Isaac Newton
c.
Johannes Kepler
b.
Nicolaus Copernicus
d.
Tycho Brahe
 

 16. 

____ was the first person to see craters and mountains on the moon and sunspots on the sun.
a.
Tycho Brahe
c.
Johannes Kepler
b.
Galileo Galilei
d.
Isaac Newton
 

 17. 

____ discovered the phases of Venus and four moons orbiting Jupiter.
a.
Isaac Newton
c.
Galileo Galilei
b.
Johannes Kepler
d.
Tycho Brahe
 



 
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