Ocean Topography

1.  world ocean is one giant ocean that covers most of the Earth.
2.  ocean is divided into 5 named parts.  Names help describe which part of the ocean we are talking about
3  5 oceans are the
          a. Pacific Ocean- the largest and deepest, between the Americas and Asia
          b. Atlantic Ocean-second largest, between the Americas and Europe and Africa
          c. Indian Ocean- third largest but second deepest, surrounded by Africa, India, and    Australia.
          d. Arctic Ocean- the smallest, is the North Pole area of the Earth.
          e. Southern Ocean-the ocean surrounding Antarctica
4.  oceanographer is a scientist who studies the oceans.
5.  ocean water contains salts and gases, salinity is 3.5%
6.  rivers and streams dump substances including salt into the ocean
7.  SONAR- uses echo sounding to explore the ocean floor using sound waves.

8. ocean floor topography-the ocean floor has many of the same features as the Earth’s surface, including mountains and valleys.

9. Ocean basin-the ocean itself, the hole that is filled with saltwater.
10. continental shelf-the edge of the continent where it enters the ocean, is part of the continent and is shallow water.
11. continental slope-drops down much deeper into the ocean, can be as deep as 2,000 meters.
12. submarine canyon-steep V-shaped canyon found in the continental shelf and continental slope.  Can be as deep as 2,000 meters.
13. abyssal plain-the flat ocean floor!, the flattest place on Earth.        
14.  seamount-an extinct volcano found on the ocean floor. 
15.  guyot-a flat-topped seamount flattened by wave action
16.  midocean ridge-undersea mountain range, the longest mountain range on Earth!
17. rift valley-deep valley in the midocean ridge formed where the sea floor is being pulled apart by plate tectonics, caused by divergent boundaries.
18. deep-sea trench-very steep sided cut (valley) in the ocean floor, deepest part of the ocean, can be more than 11,000 meters, caused by convergent boundaries.
19.  Mariana Trench-deepest part of the ocean, over 36,000 feet deep.  Water pressure is over 8 tons per square inch!!!