Ocean Topography Notes 3
1. 5 oceans are the
a. Pacific Ocean- the largest and deepest,
b. Atlantic Ocean-second largest
c. Indian Ocean- third largest but second deepest
d. Arctic Ocean- the smallest, at the North Pole
e. Southern Ocean-the ocean surrounding Antarctica
2. oceanographer is a scientist who studies the oceans.
3. ocean water contains salts and gases, salinity is 3.5%
4. rivers and streams dump substances including salt into the ocean, from erosion
5. SONAR- uses echo sounding, sound waves, to explore the ocean floor.
6. ocean floor topography-the ocean floor has the same features as the Earth’s surface, including mountains and valleys.
7. Ocean basin-the ocean itself, the hole that is filled with saltwater.
Read these paragraphs and create your own notes about sediment:
8. sediment-The ocean floor is covered by an average of 550 feet of sediment, but the sediment can be more than 4 miles thick in the Argentine Basin in the South Atlantic. Some regions, particularly the central parts of the midocean ridges where new crust is formed, have little, if any, sediment on them. The sediments are studied by dredging and by deep-sea exploration projects such as the ocean drilling program, which obtains core samples of seafloor sediment from all the world’s oceans.
The sediments are made mostly of rock particles and organic remains(dead critters and their shells and bones); the compositions depend on depth, distance from continents, and local variants such as submarine volcanoes or high biological productivity. Clay minerals, which are formed by the weathering of continental rocks and carried out to sea by rivers and wind, are usually abundant in the deep sea. Thick deposits of such detrital material are often found near mouths of rivers and on continental shelves; fine particles of clay are spread through the ocean and accumulate slowly on the deep-ocean floor. Imagine how much sediment must be dumped into the ocean everyday by the mighty Amazon River.