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mineral review



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

A collector of minerals would want a sample of ____.
a.
salt
c.
sugar
b.
coal
d.
wood
 

 2. 

Minerals are comprised of one or more ____.
a.
colors
c.
rocks
b.
elements
d.
structures
 

 3. 

Which of the following is considered a special property that applies to only a few minerals?
a.
color
c.
streak
b.
luster
d.
magnetism
 

 4. 

mc004-1.jpg

Although 90 elements occur naturally in the Earth’s crust, this figure shows that 98 percent of the crust is made up of how many elements?
a.
6
c.
9
b.
8
d.
2
 

 5. 

As magma cools, its atoms arrange themselves to form a _____________ structure.
a.
chemical
c.
crystalline
b.
loose
d.
none of the above
 

 6. 

Calcite will scratch gypsum. This is an example of the physical characteristics called ____.
a.
hardness
c.
fracture
b.
streak
d.
cleavage
 

 7. 

mc007-1.jpg
One of the softest minerals is ____.
a.
topaz
c.
talc
b.
quartz
d.
amethyst
 

 8. 

All minerals have the following characteristics EXCEPT that of ____.
a.
being formed by natural processes
b.
being formed from living organisms
c.
being solids
d.
having the atoms within the mineral arranged in a pattern
 

 9. 

All minerals are
a.
liquids
c.
rocks
b.
inorganic
d.
organic
 

 10. 

If the cost of separating a mineral from waste rock becomes too great, the mineral may no longer be classified as an ore. This happens because ____.
a.
the mineral can no longer be mined at a profit
b.
the mineral has lost its usefulness
c.
the demand for the mineral has decreased
d.
none of the above
 

 11. 

Metallic, submetallic, and nonmetallic are descriptions of a mineral's
a.
streak.
c.
color.
b.
luster.
d.
cleavage.
 

 12. 

If the atoms of a substance are arranged in a specific, repetitive pattern, the substance is
a.
a compound.
c.
a mineral
b.
colorful.
d.
easily scratched.
 

 13. 

Minerals are comprised of one or more ____.
a.
colors
c.
rocks
b.
elements
d.
structures
 

 14. 

All minerals share ____ basic characteristics.
a.
two
c.
four
b.
three
d.
ten
 

 15. 

When liquid evaporates, atoms of any dissolved minerals stay behind and form ____, such as desert roses.
a.
atoms
c.
crystals
b.
magma
d.
organic matter
 

 16. 

mc016-1.jpg
On Mohs' hardness scale, which of the following minerals is harder than quartz?
a.
talc
c.
gypsum
b.
apatite
d.
topaz
 

 17. 

Humus, silt, clay, and sand are all parts of —
a.
soil.
c.
rocks.
b.
fungi.
d.
plants.
 

 18. 

mc018-1.jpg

According to the chart, _____ is the most common element in the Earth’s crust.
a.
Iron
c.
silicon
b.
Aluminum
d.
oxygen
 

 19. 

All minerals share the following characteristics EXCEPT that of ____.
a.
being formed by natural processes
b.
being formed from living organisms
c.
being solids
d.
having the atoms within the mineral arranged in a pattern
 

 20. 

When magma cools slowly
a.
minerals do not form
c.
minerals will have small crystals
b.
minerals will have large crystals
d.
minerals change into rocks
 

 21. 

Friedrich Mohs created a scale that is used to measure the ____________ of minerals.
a.
color
c.
luster
b.
hardness
d.
cleavage
 

 22. 

Cleavage of a mineral is related to a mineral's
a.
chemical composition.
c.
luster.
b.
streak color.
d.
crystalline structure.
 

 23. 

Which of the following is NOT a property that is commonly used to identify minerals?
a.
color
c.
density
b.
hardness
d.
texture
 

 24. 

The largest group of rock-forming minerals consists of the ____.
a.
quartzes
c.
silicates
b.
halides
d.
oxides
 

 25. 

As magma cools, its ____ combine into compounds that form a crystal structure, and it becomes a mineral.
a.
atoms
c.
electrons
b.
elements
d.
none of the above
 

 26. 

A mineral can be identified by breaking it and then examining the directions it broke in. This test uses the mineral characteristic called  
a.
striations.  
c.
specific gravity.  
b.
hardness.  
d.
cleavage.  
 

 27. 

The two most common elements in the Earth's crust are
a.
nitrogen and oxygen.
c.
silicon and oxygen.
b.
carbon and silicon.
d.
oxygen and carbon.
 

 28. 

Which statement best describes minerals?
a.
Rocks are made of minerals.
c.
Minerals can be solid, liquid or gas.
b.
Minerals are made of rocks.
d.
Crystals made by people are minerals.
 

 29. 

A collector of minerals would want a sample of ____.
a.
salt
c.
sugar
b.
coal
d.
wood
 

 30. 

Over 98 percent of the Earth’s crust is made up of how many elements?
a.
5
c.
90
b.
8
d.
12
 

 31. 

Hot, melted rock beneath the Earth’s crust is called
a.
lava
c.
magma
b.
Feldspar minerals
d.
organic minerals
 

 32. 

The properties of being ____ make a diamond a gemstone.
a.
rare and beautiful
c.
easy to obtain and beautiful
b.
useful and profitable
d.
rare and profitable
 

 33. 

Which is a mineral?  
a.
glass  
c.
magma  
b.
graphite  
d.
bricks  
 

 34. 

The largest group of rock-forming minerals consists of the ____.
a.
non-silicates
c.
silicates
b.
halides
d.
oxides
 

 35. 

One of the softest minerals is ____.
a.
topaz
c.
talc
b.
quartz
d.
amethyst
 

 36. 

When quartz breaks it forms a curved, irregular pattern called
a.
luster.
c.
fracture.
b.
cleavage.
d.
hardness.
 

 37. 

mc037-1.jpg
The hardness of quartz is 7. This indicates that quartz will scratch all of the following minerals EXCEPT ____.
a.
talc
c.
topaz
b.
apatite
d.
calcite
 

 38. 

On Mohs' hardness scale, which of the following minerals is the softest?
a.
talc
c.
corundum
b.
diamond
d.
orthoclase
 

 39. 

The largest group of rock-forming minerals consists of the ____.
a.
quartzes
c.
silicates
b.
halides
d.
oxides
 

 40. 

Which of the following physical properties can be expressed in numbers?
a.
luster
c.
color
b.
hardness
d.
reaction to acid
 

 41. 

The color of the powder that a mineral leaves on a piece of white, unglazed porcelain is called the mineral's
a.
hardness.
c.
streak.
b.
luster.
d.
scratch.
 

 42. 

Some minerals are formed when ____ cools.
a.
an atom
c.
magma
b.
a solid
d.
the crystals
 

 43. 

A rock that contains a metal is known as  
a.
a crystal.  
c.
a stalactite.  
b.
an ore.  
d.
an anthracite
 

 44. 

Use the chart below to answer this question.

mineral
hardness
way it breaks
luster
streak
color
Galena
2.5
cleavage
metallic
gray-black
silver, gray
Magnetite
6
fracture
metallic
black
black
Hematite
6
fracture
metallic-dull
red-brown
red-brown, silver, black
      Susan wants to identify a dark, heavy mineral sample she found in the classroom collection. She notices there are three minerals in a chart in a reference book that might match her sample.
   Susan next observes that her sample mineral has flat, reflective surfaces that break into boxlike steps. She infers the mineral may be galena. If she is correct, one more test will verify her inference. Which property would to best for her to observe next?
a.
hardness
c.
streak
b.
luster
d.
color
 

 45. 

Muscovite mica will peel off in flat sheets. This is an example of the physical characteristic called ____.
a.
hardness
c.
fracture
b.
streak
d.
cleavage
 

 46. 

A collector of minerals would want a sample of ____.
a.
halite
c.
sugar
b.
coal
d.
wood
 

 47. 

A mineral's streak
a.
is more accurate than color in identifying a mineral.
b.
will tell you the mineral's specific gravity.
c.
is the same as a luster test.
d.
shows the mineral's crystal structure.
 

 48. 

____ minerals are the most common silicate mineral group in the Earth's crust.
a.
Carbonate
c.
Mica
b.
Feldspar
d.
Quartz
 

 49. 



mc049-1.jpg

According to the chart, oxygen and silicon make up ______ percent of the Earth’s crust.
a.
46.6 %
c.
over 74 %
b.
27.7 %
d.
over 100 %
 

 50. 

Which of these is not true about minerals?
a.
they are formed by natural processes
b.
they are formed from living organisms
c.
they are solids
d.
they have atoms arranged in a crystal pattern
 

 51. 

A Mineral is an inorganic _____ with a unique crystal structure.
a.
atomic
c.
magma
b.
solid
d.
crystal
 

 52. 

A mineral is no longer classified as an ore once it is no longer ____.
a.
useful
c.
obtainable at reasonable cost
b.
profitable
d.
all of the above
 

 53. 

mc053-1.jpg
The hardness of quartz is 7. This indicates that quartz will scratch all of the following minerals EXCEPT ____.
a.
talc
c.
topaz
b.
apatite
d.
calcite
 

 54. 

As magma cools, its ____ combine into compounds that form a crystal structure, and it becomes a mineral.
a.
atoms
c.
electrons
b.
elements
d.
none of the above
 

 55. 

Calcite will scratch gypsum. This is an example of the physical characteristics called ____.
a.
hardness
c.
fracture
b.
streak
d.
cleavage
 

 56. 

A mineral is classified as an ore as long as ____.
a.
it is rare and valuable
c.
it is profitable and useful
b.
it can be used as jewelry
d.
it is solid and natural
 

 57. 

Muscovite mica will peel off in flat sheets. This is an example of the physical characteristic called ____.
a.
hardness
c.
fracture
b.
streak
d.
cleavage
 



 
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