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3rd 9 Weeks

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which is the thickest layer of the Earth?
a.
crust
c.
mantle
b.
inner core
d.
outer core
 

 2. 

An earthquake is caused by sudden shifts in which of the following layers of Earth?
a.
outer core
c.
inner core
b.
crust
d.
mesosphere
 

 3. 

The crustal plates of Earth move due to being dragged along with
a.
convection currents in the mantle.
c.
the high tides of the oceans.
b.
the rotation of Earth on its axis.
d.
prevailing winds in the jet stream.
 

 4. 

Fossils of the fern Glossopteris have been found in Africa, Australia, South America, and Antarctica. How do scientists explain this observation?
a.
The wind blew the seeds across the oceans from continent to continent.
b.
The fern developed independently on each continent.
c.
The continents were at one time joined together and then moved apart.
d.
The fern had adaptations to survive the different environments of the continents.
 

 5. 

Which theory explains the change in the position of the continents during the history of Earth?
a.
natural selection
c.
big bang
b.
plate tectonics
d.
rock cycle
 

 6. 

Which of these statements about Earth's crust is true?
a.
It is a layer of solid rock that remains the same throughout time.
b.
It includes the continents, but not the ocean floor.
c.
It is a changing, moving surface with the same thickness everywhere.
d.
It is a system of large masses called plates that slowly move together or apart.
 

 7. 

Compared to rocks in Earth's crust, rocks in the mantle are more
a.
dense.
c.
granular.
b.
mineral-rich.
d.
porous.
 

 8. 

A deep well or mine shaft goes through which layer or layers of Earth?
a.
crust only
c.
crust and mantle
b.
mantle only
d.
mantle and core
 

 9. 

Earth's core is mainly composed of
a.
iron and aluminum.
c.
iron and nickel.
b.
silicon and hydrogen.
d.
silicon and oxygen.
 

 10. 

What is the primary cause of volcanoes and earthquakes?
a.
crustal plate movement
c.
higher than usual tides
b.
Earth's gravitational force
d.
solar magnetic storms
 

 11. 

What landform is created when two continental plates collide?
a.
mountain range
c.
volcano
b.
ocean basin
d.
canyon
 

 12. 

Scientists believe the Earth's inner core to be solid. This is probably due to extremes in:
a.
depth.
c.
pressure.
b.
heat.
d.
temperature.
 

 13. 

If we compare the temperature and pressure of the Earth's mantle to the core, what differences can we expect as we move downward into the Earth?
a.
Both the temperature and pressure increase.
b.
Both the temperature and pressure decrease.
c.
The temperature decreases and the pressure increases.
d.
The temperature increases and the pressure decreases.
 

 14. 

Layer C in the diagram has the greatest temperature and pressure. It is MOST LIKELY Earth's
mc014-1.jpg
a.
atmosphere.
c.
mantle.
b.
crust.
d.
core.
 

 15. 

Layer A in the diagram has the lowest temperature and pressure. What part of the Earth is labeled layer A?
mc015-1.jpg
a.
the atmosphere
c.
the mantle
b.
the crust
d.
the core
 

 16. 

Why is the rock of the sea floor along a mid-ocean ridge warmer than the rock of the sea floor that is farther away?
a.
Friction from earthquakes along a mid-ocean ridge heats the rock around the ridge.
b.
Rock from the sea floor near a mid-ocean ridge is warmer because it has more sediment covering it.
c.
A mid-ocean ridge is taller than the surrounding sea floor; therefore, it gets more energy from the Sun.
d.
Convection currents rise in the mantle along the mid-ocean ridge, transporting heat from Earth’s interior.
 

 17. 

The diagram below shows layers of Earth.

mc017-1.jpg

Whichof these describes the layer labeled A in the diagram?
a.
contains hot liquid minerals
b.
composed of solid iron and nickel
c.
exposed to high temperatures and pressure
d.
made up of brittle, rocky, slow-moving plates
 

 18. 

What do scientists think is the source of energy that causes the movement of Earth’s lithospheric plates?
a.
energy radiating from the Sun
b.
energy from Earth’s magnetic poles
c.
energy from heat convection in the mantle
d.
energy released by volcanoes and earthquakes
 

 19. 

Which of these BEST describes how oceanic and continental crusts differ?
a.
The continental crust is older and thinner than the continental crust.
b.
The continental crust is older and thicker than the oceanic crust.
c.
The oceanic crust is older and thicker than the continental crust.
d.
The oceanic crust is older and thinner than the continental crust.
 

 20. 

At which of these locations would Earth’s crust be thinnest?
a.
at Death Valley in California
c.
at Mount Everest in the Himalayas
b.
at the South Pole in Antarctica
d.
at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean
 

 21. 

Ms. Dean asked her students to find pictures of geological features that have been formed as a result of the movement of Earth’s crust. Which picture will be the BEST for the students to use?
a.
mc021-1.jpg
c.
mc021-3.jpg
b.
mc021-2.jpg
d.
mc021-4.jpg
 

 22. 

Lee drew a diagram with arrows showing the direction of movement of two plates of Earth’s crust.

  mc022-1.jpg

Which feature is MOST LIKELY to be formed as a result of this movement?
a.
deltas
c.
grasslands
b.
waterfalls
d.
volcanic islands
 

 23. 

Volcanoes are locations where
a.
tectonic plates collide and crumble.
b.
tectonic plates slide past each other.
c.
hot magma pushes up on Earth’s surface.
d.
hot magma pulls down on Earth’s surface.
 

 24. 

These fossils were found in rocks at the top of a mountain.

mc024-1.jpg

Which of these explains why the fossils were at the top of a mountain?
a.
The mountain was once in a desert.
b.
Prehistoric people carried the shells to the top of the mountain.
c.
Ocean sediments became rock and then were raised when the mountain formed.
d.
Birds carried these animals to the mountaintop where they eventually formed fossils.
 

 25. 

The San Francisco Bay area experienced a large earthquake in 1989. This earthquake occurred along the San Andreas Fault system. What causes earthquakes along this fault system?
a.
The eruption of nearby volcanoes.
b.
A sudden movement of tectonic plates.
c.
The smooth movement of tectonic plates.
d.
A movement of the hot spot in the mantle.
 

 26. 

The mapbelow shows the location of the Andes mountains in South America.

mc026-1.jpg

Which explanation describes how these mountains MOST LIKELY formed?
a.
Separating tectonic plates forced the land upward.
b.
Sediments deposited by rivers caused the land to rise.
c.
Erosion from wind and water carved the mountains out of the land.
d.
An oceanic tectonic plate collided and subducted under a continental plate.
 

 27. 

When two sections of the Earth’s crust collide, one plate can be forced beneath the other. This is called subduction. What is a possible consequence of subduction?
a.
earthquakes
c.
volcano formation
b.
continental drift
d.
mountain formation
 

 28. 

A deep well or mine shaft goes through which layer or layers of Earth?
a.
crust only
c.
crust and mantle
b.
mantle only
d.
mantle and core
 

 29. 

Which layer of the Earth is made up of tectonic plates?
a.
core
c.
asthenosphere
b.
mesosphere
d.
lithosphere
 

 30. 

The thickest part of a tectonic plate lies below
a.
the middle of the ocean.
c.
the center of a continent.
b.
a mountain range.
d.
a coastal plain.
 

 31. 

Earth's oceanic crust is ____ than the continental crust.
a.
thinner but denser
c.
thicker but less dense
b.
thicker and denser
d.
thinner and less dense
 

 32. 

Which type of crust is made mostly of basalt?
a.
the lithosphere
c.
continental crust
b.
oceanic crust
d.
mountainous crust
 

 33. 

Continental crust is made mostly of two kinds of rock.  They are
a.
lithospheric and metamorphic
c.
granite and basalt
b.
basalt and igneous
d.
rocks and granite
 

 34. 

How do scientists collect information about the inside of the Earth?
a.
studying seismic waves and drilling holes
c.
by digging deep mines down into the different layers of the Earth
b.
by using satellite technology
d.
by drilling holes and studying volcanoes
 

 35. 

How many elements make up about 90 percent of the crust?
a.
all 107
c.
5
b.
about 93
d.
10
 



 
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